In the long course of British history the sovereign has lost absolute power and now he or she has only representative functions and simply performs a series of official acts of government decided by Parliament. Besides, by tacit agreement the monarch does not take any active part in politics.
The British acknowledge the queen or the King to be:
The head of the Nation
The Head of the legal system
The temporal Head of the Church of England
The Head of the Commonwealth
The Head of the Executive
The supreme legislative authority: all laws must receive the monarch-s assent before becoming effective
The command in Chief of the Armed Forces
Inoltre il monarca:
opens each session of Parliament by giving a speech that is prepared opens each session of Parliament by giving a speech that is prepared by the Government
Summons and dissolves Parl.
Officially agree to legislation passed by Parl. And can put her veto
Appoint the Prime Minister (the leader of the party that wins the election)
The monarch reigns but not rule.
The Parliament is a very old institution, dating to the 13TH century. Over the centuries it has seen its power grow at the expense of the sovereign-s prerogatives, stating in 1215 when King John was forced by barons to accept the Magna Carta. This document was a milestone in the development of the British monarchy into a constitutional monarchy as it gave for the first time a class of citizens, the barons control over some of the sovereign-s power.
The assembly of barons slip into two branches (barons and high clergy} start the bicameral system.
1689 The bill of rights
1701 Act of settlement
They are two fundamental acts limiting the monarch-s rights concerning the use of the money collected though taxation and succession to the throne. Established parliament-s inalienable rights to freedom of debate and legislation.
Has approximately 1,000 members nor elected by people and belong to one these groups:
Princess of the Royal Family
Spiritual Lords *archbishops of
Hereditary Peer noble families
Life peers and peeresses Outstanding services rendered to the nation
Low lords Judges for life
This House is presided by the lord Chancellor and is the Supreme Court of Appeal in civil and criminal cases.
Lord Chancellor is the Head of the Judiciary.
The lords cannot legislate. They examine bills passed by the Common and can alter them by amendment. They cannot reyet bill and if they do not approve it, can only delay it for an year.
The more influential of the two houses.
Is composed of 651 members chosen by the people at the general election.
They meet in Common, a hall in gothic style where sovereign is not admitted since the 17th century arrest of some members.
Debating bills and voting or reyecting them.
Examination of the action of the Government
Debate question of public interest.
Public and press can watch the debate by the visitor-s Gallery.
The President is the Speaker elected at the beginning of each new Parliament.
Speaker directs and controls debates.
political parties in
The Conservative Party
This party developed from the TORIES, which supported the monarchy in the 17th century. They have a conservative view of social life. They believe in free enterprise, private property and do not want that State to run business enterprises and want trade unions.
Is defined Socialist party. It shares the issues socialist support in every country. They want heavy taxation and a redistribution of tax revenue in favour of needy social categories.
They are defined ad centrist. Its programme is a compromise between the two views.
There are other little parties that promote the local interest of these areas, but is very difficult for small parties to obtain significant parliamentary representation.
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