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MARKETING:         it concerns the lunching of the products on the market

It organizes sales an all that concern product

It is the step before the production

The principal activity of marketing is the market research

MARKET RESEARCH finding what the market wants.

It helps companies for the future and limit risk by providing information about:

The size of market: How many products are sold?

The structure of the market: What type of products is successful?

The market share the various brands have: Who sells best?

The pricing police for the product on the market: What is the competition charging?

The competitions strengths and weaknesses: Are competitors about come up whit new products

The differen 343j96d t groups of consumers by social status

The opportunities and threats in the market

The distribution methods that the market favours

The cultural implications when selling of foreign markets

The best promotional means

MARKET RESEARCH aims to understand what the market want.

Creativity and experience are important in market research.

Market research is based on the human needs and we have a pyramid of needs.





Esteem needs

Social needs

Satisfy needs

Physiological needs

Others important aspects in marketing are BRANDING and PACKAGING.


We can found some "brand naming agencies" for specialized in evaluating the product, the image the company wants and funding the name for the product.

This is done only for new products, for existing products this agency give a fresh image.

A good brand name is most important in marketing; once you found the right name and your product is successful you have to fight to defend it.


Packaging is determined by several factors:

*Technical what packaging best protects the characteristics of the product?

*Comfort: what packaging consumer as being practical perceives, pleasant, appealing?

*Size: what is the size of packaging to market your product in?

*Differentiation: how do you make your product look different from its competitors?

*Promotion: should the product be marketed in multiple items packaging to encourage a trial purchase?

*Advertising: what appears on the packaging is very important and there are deciding factors in whether consumers will buy or not.

*.At the right price..: you must determinate the "right" price, and you have to take into account

Promotion costs

Competitors' prices

Profit that you want

*..At the right time..: you must answers to questions such as for determinate the right time

Are there seasonal variations in the market?

If the market tends to have slack periods, how can demand be created in those periods?

When is best to organize promotion

*..At the right place..: The right place is where you sell your product.

You have to decide whether distribution should take place directly to consumers, this depends on the type of customers you are targeting.

*..To the right people. the right people are the market and your potential customers.

Identifying your target consumers is vital factor in deciding the best advertising strategy for promote your product.

*..By saying the right thing, choosing the right way: the right thing is the promotional message and the right way is the promotional means; they may be interlinked because the message may depend to a certain extent on what promotional means used.

Promotional means include informational items and advertising.


It makes up the company's official face.

Companies have a variety of information about themselves that is regularly circulated in letterheads, business cards, and panels in the sides of company vehicles, catalogues, leaflets, and flyers.


They are principal reference for buyer.

The catalogues of the production is very important and requires careful preparation and adequate investments.

The main features of catalogue are:

Present information clear and actractive way including illustration of the product

It should be clear which are the products and the new products

Include at least one order from, preferably several

Information about the company easily and highly visible

The layout should be user-friendly and divided into clearly identifiable sections

Include a contents list and an index

Leaflets and flyers are shorter and cheaper versions of a catalogue, they are used to arouse interested and provide basic information.

ADVERTIZING:      delivers their message to potential customer in the most effective way.


PRESS ADVERTIZING: people spend more money for press advertising; it is the best means for detailed information.

The cost of press advertising depends:

(A)  If you press in national or local

(B)   If the advertising is an image with advertisement

(C)  The size of advertising

(D)  Where it appears

Press advertising is for attract the readers attention, important in press advertising are:

THE ILLUSTRATION is the main element for its visual impact.

There are the photographs of the product or who is likely to use product.

THE SLOGAN a catchy slogan may make a product know.

Slogan have standard features, they usually:

*Point out the merits and popularity of the product

*Using the words "you" and "yours"

*Include adjectives superlative and compounds

*Include puns

*Include new words

We have a lot of type of advertising:

SPONSORSHIP: it is in various forms, the typical example is the sponsorship in sports; companies investing a lot of money in individual athletes or in sporting events

RADIO: introduce product or services using sounds and creating a particular atmosphere or mood.

The main disadvantage of radio advertising is that consumers cannot visualize the product and may have problems to identify it.

OUTDOORS ADVERTIZING: or street advertising.

The message needs to be short because people will see it for a short period of time.

(A) It reaches a mass market

(B) It is relative cheap

(C) It has a good impact

TELEISION is often using to lunch a new product or reinforce an existing product it is supported by media.

Television advertising is very limited but is an excellent means of appealing to the consumers' self-image

It is sophisticates and uses colours, sounds, and atmosphere, create images and famous personage.

Television projects the product directly into the home.

One of disadvantage of television advertising is that it is difficult to target specific market because television is mass medium.


DIRECT MAIL: is based on circular letters.

We have not been targeted casually; our names are in "mailing list"

with our information.

Mailing list are drawn up by specialized companies and available to

advertisers for a fee.

DIRECT RESPONSE ADVERTIZING: the consumer is asked to respond directly by

Phoning or writing.

POINT-OF-SALE ADVERTIZING is use to attract costumers to products displayed

In retail outlets.

SALES PROMOTIONS can also take variety of forms: coupons, special offers.






*Widely used

*Wide target (wide-circulation newspapers)

*Specific target (interest-focused press or trade)

*Relativity low

*Depends on calculation of medium (prestigious national magazine, small local paper)

*Depends on size and position


*May be primary means (sponsorship of TV programme)

*Wilde target

*Specific target (publisher of art books sponsoring art exhibition

*From extremely expansive (sponsorship of sports champions) to fairly cheap (sponsorship of small local sports team)

*Both national & local campaigns

*Often used as reinforcement of primary medium

*Wilde target

*Relatively low


*Widely used at local level

*Widely used by small/medium size firms

*Wide target

*Specific target (announcements linked to type of programme)

*Depends on time slot & frequency of announcements


*Large companies use national television

*Smaller companies use local television channels

*Both wide target (prime-time slot) and specific targets (children's programme slot)

*From extremely (prime-time slot in national television) to expansive (morning slot on private local television)


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