The word utopia was used for
the first time in English literature by Sir Thomas More in the title of his
work Utopia (1516). The word indicates an ideal place which does not exist. In
More's book, Utopia is an island where there is not private property because
that is considered the origin of all the evils of the society. People live 525e43f in a
community where all the goods are shared, there is a free education and free
medical treatment, all religions are tolerated and
have time for relaxation and entertainment. The next utopian work was The New
Atlantis, by Francis Bacon in 1626. It describes a completely isolated society
which has full control of nature. In the 18th century, the most
famous utopian writer was Swift with his Gulliver's Travels, which was a masterpiece
of semi-utopian narrative. The use of the term 'semi-utopian' derives from the
fact that of the four types of society described in the book only one can be
considered a truly utopian land because the other three show negative aspects. In
the 19th century,
Huxley was born into an
upper-middle class family in
Brave New World is a novel set in Utopia. Ford is the founder of Utopia, and its symbol. A rigid control on all citizens assures stability, marriage is not allowed and the system permits five castes, the higher having the more imaginative roles in the society, the lower doing hard boring work. There is the test tube birth. Ten World Controllers have the power and peace is guaranteed the state's process of conditioning all young people to think in the same way and in giving soma, a tranquillizer. All the ages are distracted from serious thinking with sports and entertainment.
Huxley has been defined a didactic writer. He considers the theme of a novel more important than the plot. The characters become the mouthpieces of the author. In his works, he attacked the modern world in all its aspects. The title Brave New World comes from The Tempest, by Shakespeare and indicates in an ironic way a nightmarish world in which the advancement of science affects human beings by annihilating their personalities. One of the major threats is the totalitarian system. The absolute veneration for science, the reverence for technology and its comforts and apathy towards the arts and spiritual values are threats present in the novel. Huxley wants to warn man that the abuse of science is extremely dangerous. The tone is light and amusing because he is a satirist.
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