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MIDDLE-AGES

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MIDDLE-AGES: society based on fees , composed : barons, knights , baesans(villans , serfs,) in 14th new class ( middleclass was stood betw. Knights , peasants) religions belived that life of soul is real one , the planet system was earth-centred, god -centre. Lyric character( virgin mary) topic (love nature) used metrical romances develop in roma france Britain. Ballad ( popular form of litt., first oral , accompanying of music , mix dialogue -narration , assonance repetition, 4 line stanzas) chaucher  in cantemb. Tales ( thirty person are going on pilgrimage in cant. In the tabbardin the host suggest that every philgrim should tell 2 stories going to and 2 coming back).RENAISSANCE (elegant complex , devel. In many fields -art, music, po 242e43c etry) start Tudor dynasty: after 2 roses war , henry 7(intelligent, flair for political affairs) henry 8 (fond of music. Dance-art , he was catholic but  married 6 woman  catherine of aragon(mary when divorced soppressed monk, closed monasteries) anne Boleyn (elisabet 1cultivated 6 language 2 rinforced Anglican church ) jane of seymours(edwaed6) anne of cleves Catherine howard ,.parr . Stuart dynasty  james 6 ( protestant belived in divine right, spread in E corruption) important events - group catholics planned to blow in the H of P - dissenters (pilgrims fathers) decided to live in E ,usa cultural context period of-cultural Renewal, interesting humanities, filosofical mov., house of outstending personalities Erasmus roth. , Thomas more(utopia), centre of power was court . religions spread of Protestantism ( main values - hard work - thift-individualism) THEATRE (theaomai referred to ritual dionisusor solemn chorus) real communication actors_audience , new form , laic , characters noble heroes but also human types theme clash individual- social order , man's place in universe,clash reality -apparence,  influence of stars, mixed audience, was rapresented in noble houses , court. Sources  folk traditions ( realism) greek theat.(celebration English story) latin theat. ( division 5 acts , clash human rationality and violent passion) Italian (comm.. of art , macchiavelli) Places playhouse (built outside londob bec. Puritance refuse) Elizabethan thea. ( circular octagonal, oper in sky, pit was surrounding by 3 tiers og galleries and boxes, action continiuos  no curtains) SHAKESPEARE ( 1564 1616) career 4 periods  1590 1595( romeo.., midsummer..)  1595 1\600 ( julius Caesar) 1600 1608 ( Othello , machbeth) 1608 1612 ( tempest)   complete artist , the ploth not  original 1 period , greath originally 2 period, characters belong to all social classes, action  take place in reality but also mind, used super nat. elem. MACBETH 1606 dedicated to james 1 themes man  is driven to eternal damnation by ambition  lustfor power, contrast appearances-reality,represent. Faith evil   sources  Seneca tragedies heather boace's Structure  introduction( battle)development(prediction of 3 witches) climax( mcb. Is not hing) crisis ( Scottish +E army are going to invade Scotland) decline( mcb considerated a tyrant) catastrophe(mch killed)



OTHELLO (1622) main theme how evil can drive to damnation on man araising in him a neg. pass., evil =  iago, O. is a phsycolog. Trag. Based on influence of a mind on anather one Contrast  posi. Feel..( o+ desd) neg fee.(prejudice) iago-O. ( series anthitesis ) Iago  double face (onest disonest) language (vulgar) aim( ruin Othello) TEMPEST  sources book of voyages to America , Italian commedia dell'arte  themes  1  the growth of spirit ( soul composed 3 part  sensible, rational, intellectual)supernat. Magic ,(black , white) abuse of reason( Antonio ) the double( ariel  spirit - caliban matheriality, prospero civilized - caliban primitive) colonisation of England ,shak.'s farewell to his career. Metaphor  shak( last work return to stratford) prosp (abandon island ) pros. And shak are  both directors of a play. PURITAN   1625 charles succeded yames 1 , clash king and parliament(supp. By puritans) parliament brought forward the "petition of rights"  it  denied the king  the right to  impose taxes , introduces martial low  1629 dissolved parliament ( new tax ship money)1640 summoned parliament to subdue a rebellion in Scotland, parliament limited power started civil war  ( cavaliers supported king   roundheads s. parliament)  important Cromwell  (member of ironsides) parliament won civil war, monarchy  was abolited country become a republic " commonwealth"1660 charles 2 return of monarchy

 Society was organised in rank , increase of economy( develop of trade and transport) importance of London grew up ( port , increase of population) improvement of condition of poor Religion dominated national life , sermons become a political weapon . Puritans (interpretate the bible without priests - were against some practices- belived in predestination) THE RESTORATION whith charles 2  power of parliament developed a lot,  2 different part ( whigs in favour democracy, tories in favour monarchy) 1685 james 2 ( catholic) tried to impose it in the whole country 1688 parlament decided to offer the crown to William orange and mary . this process was known "bloodless revolution" social p.o.v. new literature ( hero is noble, new critical trend but also classical spirit) , new science ( new vision of world , heliocentre and mechanic, created royal society , Newton) new philosophy ( explain mysteries of universe , new esperimental method inductive , locke hobbes ) literature  return to classical models ( simplicity) satire AUGUSTAN AGE  wiliam aon mary estabilished with " act of settlement" that only protestant heirs could become king, james tried to regain throne but William wins.  Queen  anne  ( war  for  spanisch succession and with act of union  connected 2 parliament  S-E ) 1714 george 1 Social  age of middle class  wealthy merchants ( copy style of nobility) artisans and urban population( develop. Of  texile) Economical  political stability( democracy) expansion of colonies  technological progress ( invented steam engine , spinning jenny and power loom) effect of A-A was growth of cities  ex London( coffee houses ) Literature has social charactrers , interest in social problems, develop prose ( imp. Of reasons , realism) and poetry( imagination , fantasy, dreams) satire ( a consequence of analysing society with realism)NOVEL ( novelist , espression of midd..) Feature  plot  can be realistic, complex, chronological order   characters ( common people or bourgeois people) aim didactical aim , improve moral social values , but also entertainment technique long chapters, precise description, divided in 4 stages ( introduction, breakdown of situation, development , end) narrator  can be 1 person ( restrints reader's view) 2 person( omniscent) theme 1 overt ( cosciounsly indicated by autor ) 2 covert( must be discovered by reader or critic) ROMANTICISM ( the feature  imagination emotion  feeling) poet catched gothic novel  many features was associated with ballad: -comb narration _dialogue , frequent repetition.   es Colerige ( suppoted the ideas of French revolution and formed an utopian community " pantisocraty" ) used an arcaic language rich in alliteration repetition . es ancian mariner ( atmosphere is charged with mistery because a combination  of supern. Dream like element .   










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