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Read the text and choose the correct answer for the spaces from those below.


In 1950 there was no significant 1. ((a) needs, b) demand, c) question, d) supply) for television. In 1960 nobody wanted yoghurt, lager or pizzas, in 1970 nobody was buying electronic calculators and there was little interest in microwave ovens in 1980. 2) (a) So, (b) Therefore, (c) Because, (d) But) these products were on offer at those times. If research had been carried ou 444d37e t, it would have confirmed that demand for all these products 3) ((a) is, (b) was, (c) were, (d) are) insignificant.

Consumers never want new products. So why have enormous 4) ((a) stores, (b) places, (c) markets, (d) need) emerged for television, yoghurt, lager, pizzas, electronic calculators and microwave ovens? The answer is that these products proved capable of 5) ((a) fulfil, (b) have fulfilled, (c) fulfilled, (d) fulfilling) emerging consumer needs.

Needs 6) ((a) always, (b) never, (c) ever, (d) are) appear before wants and they arise irrespective of whether a 7) ((a) product, (b) manufacturers, (c) market, (d) supply) is available to answer them. Needs consequently, can remain dormant for long periods of time. They are like sleeping beauties. 8) ((a) Such, (b) Like, (c) Similar, (d) As the prince's kiss wakes the girl, so a new product converts needs into wants.

It is possible to get people 9) ((a) talk, (b) to talk, (c) have talked, (d) have been talking) about their wants. It is sometimes hard to stop them! But it is hard or even impossible to obtain meaningful 10) ((a) informations, (b) data, (c) news, (d) materials) about their needs, precisely because people tend not to be conscious of them.

Meaningless statements - Statements regularly 11) ((a) appear, (b) to appear, (c) are appearing, (d) have appeared) to the effect that about 97 out of every 100 new products fail. Such statements are usually meaningless because they tend to be unaccompanied by definitions of what failure means, or what, alternatively would have constituted success. The statistics do not show how 'new' those products were or at what stage of 12) ((a) developing, (b) develop, (c) development, (d) develops) the judgement was made. New products fail 13) ((a) because, (b) due, (c) such, (d) for) a variety of reasons, poor understanding of the marketing environment and bad management being the most prevalent ones. Even the best designed research cannot compensate for 14) ((a) such, (b) such as, (c) like, (d) as) failings, but well managed research 15) ((a) becomes, (b) is becoming, (c) became, (d) had become) increasingly useful.

16. 'proved' (line 8) means:

a) tried b) evidenced c) were d) are

17. 'to get (line 14) means:

a) to take b) to have c) to persuade d) to bring

18. 'conscious' (line 16) means:

a) awake b) know c) alive d) aware

19. 'tend to be' (line 22) means:

a) are usually b) are always  c) are covered with d) have

20. 'prevalent' (line 26) means:

a) common b) misused c) bad d) reported

21.Which is true?

  1. In 1950, television, yoghurt, pizza and lager were increasing in demand.
  2. There was already a strong demand for microwave ovens in 1980.
  3. There is no demand for television, yoghurt, lager, pizzas, electronic calculators and microwave ovens now.

d) There is now a strong demand for television, yoghurt, lager, pizzas, electronic calculators and microwave ovens.

22. According to the article:

a) New products are not needed. b) Need for new products cannot be researched.

c) Needs can be met by new products.

  1. There are enormous new markets for new products.

23. Consumers..

a) cannot give a clear idea about their wants b) always want new products c) are sleeping d) will not talk about their needs

24. The sentence, 97 out of every 100 new products fail.

a) is true   b) is false  c) is incomplete  d) is very important but not completely true

25. The best designed research is..

a) increasingly useful b) is not enough in itself c) has failings d) is meaningless


Choose the correct verb for the spaces from the answers below.

Productivity in the Brescia area..... 26) greatly since the 1980s. Many traditional industries such as, steel-production, iron- working, and consumer production..... 27). The importance of International Trade Fairs has also grown and it ... 28) that now over 40% of companies in this area now take an active part in these initiatives. Various new laws in the 1970s ....(29) to give these mainly small companies the opportunity to export more, and today the number of companies which export.....(30) nearly half the total of all companies in the area.

26. a) increased b) has increased c) had increased d) increases

27. a) modernised b) have been modernised c) had modernised d) modernise

28. a) estimated b) has estimated c) is estimating d) is estimated

29. a) passed b) were passed  c) had passed  d) was passing

30. a) reached b) has reached c) had reached d) reaches


Write Questions for the following answers. (2 marks each)

31. "Well not often, I only go to the cinema when there is a good film on."

32. "I've never been there. No sorry, that's not true, I went to New York once when I was very small."

33. " If I were President, I'd lower taxes and increase the base tax rate."

34. "Why certainly, here you are, I've already finished reading it anyway."

35. "I'm sorry, I didn't think the radio was playing very loud. I'll turn it off immediately.


ANSWERS: 1.b 2.d 3.b 4.c 5.d 6.a 7.a 8.d 9.b 10.b 11.a 12.c 13.d 14.a 15.b 16.c 17.c 18.d 19.a 20.a 21.d 22.c 23.a 24.c 25.a 26.b 27.b 28.d 29.b 30.b

  1. How often do you go to the cinema?
  2. Have you ever been to New York?
  3. What would you do if you were president?
  4. Could I borrow your newspaper?
  5. Would you mind turning your radio down? I'm trying to work.


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