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is the country in the north of Great Britain, beyond Hadrian's Wall, and is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is two thirds the size of England.

Scotland is divided into three natural regions: the Southern Uplands, the Central Lowlands and t 525j92f he Highlands and Islands.

A lot of places in Scotland are a natural paradise, still untouched by man. Scotland's landscape is very attractive with glens (valleys), wild mountains and deep lochs. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, well known for its monuments and for the International Festival which is held every August.

Glasgow (which means "Dear Green Place" in Gaelic) is the industrial capital of Scotland. It lies ion the River Clyde and is the third largest city in

Great Britain. The other main cities are Aberdeen and Dundee on the east coast.


The Roman Emperor Hadrian (76-138 A.D.) built a wall from Carlisle to Newcastle to keep out the wild Scottish tribes (the Picts and the Scots). During the 5th-7th centuries the Saxons crossed the wall and made a new border from Carlisle to the mouth of the Tweed.

In the 9th century the Kingdoms of Scotland united. After the Norman Conquest (1066) many English families left England and settled in the Scottish Lowlands. For this reason the Highlanders consider themselves the true Scots

In the 13th century England tried to conquer Scotland and there were many fierce battles. For several centuries the two countries fought each other and peace and order carne only in the 16th century under the rule of King James VI. In 1707 Scotland underwent complete union with the English parliament at Westminster but rebellions continued, led by popular heroes such as Bonnie Prince Charlie. In the 18th century, to stop these rebellions, the English decided to destroy Scottish

culture, dress and language and many Scots emigrate, to Canada, America, Australia and New Zealand. After 40 years the so called "Disarming Act" was repealed.


Scotland has always maintained a certain autonomy; far exam-pIe, Scottish law is different from that of England and the education system is different, too.

Most Scots vote Labour and are proud nationalists who resent England's political and cultural domination. Political attitudes are retlected in today's pop groups like Simple Minds and Wet Wet Wet.


Scotland has suffered from the same decline in its traditional industries (coal-mining, steel and shipbuilding) as England, but the discovery of gas and oil fields in the North Sea has boosted the Scottish economy and created a good number of jobs. The electronics industry has also developed in an area known as Silicon Glen. Typical Scottish products are high quality Tweed cloth and other textiles, and whisky.

Tourism plays an important role in the economy and includes skiing, salmon fishing and golf, the national sport.

Some typical Scottish words and their meanings

Glen valley

burn stream

wee very small

och aye yes

loch lake


1. Put the correct names by the dots in the map below

2. Write a sentence about each of the following giving some useful information for visitors to Scotland:

a) Edinburgh

b) Glasgow

c) Golf

d) Nessie

e) The Highlands

f) Whisky


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