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18th century NOVEL - TYPES OF NOVEL IN 18th CENTURY

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18th century NOVEL

the word is derived from the Latin "novus" and from the Italian "novella", it was original and reported recent events or news.  NOVEL=prose story relating recent events

The novel potrays characters and actions of real life , the fictitious elements coexist with the parameters of real life. It is caracterised by realism --> different concept of time and space.

Time : exact, chronological obsessive     Space: very detailed with descriptions full of particulars ---> this increase the impression of real life.

Factors that determined the rise of modern novel:

-the influence of "philosophical realism"(Descartes,Locke),which  focused  attention on the individual strength ;



-the influence of Methodism: it taught the individual values + personal effort+ the importance of work and of daily activity;

- the growth of reading public (particularly women readers; the diffusion of newspapers)

-growi8ng demand for novel after the birth of libraries

-wealth of the middle class

-the influence of fictional realism ( like  the picaresque narrative, ex:Cervantes's Don Quixote) 919j99j

FATHERS: Dafoe/Richardson

FEATURES: Novelist--> he is the spokesman of the middle class

                       Novel---> concerned with what could alter the social status; directed to the middle                                                     

                                         class public

AIM:   the writer's first aim is to write in a simple way in order to be understood widely

STORY:  Real life, human experiences, as novels were directed to self-reliant, self-made men

SUBJECT/CHARACTERS: the bourgeois man and his problems, definite characters, the hero of the                               

                                                narrative, the mouthpiece of the author, the reader sympathises with              

                                                him. They struggle for survival for social success.  

    Characters are divided into: -people who believe in reason(Robinson C)

                                                      -people who cannot control their passion and subordinate reason to   

                                                        their grooving(necessità)  

TIME: chronological  sequence of events; characters are rooted in a temporal dimension

SETTING: detailed descriptions

NARRATOR: is omniscient, intrusive; he never abandons his characters    

 TYPES OF NOVEL IN 18th  CENTURY        

THE REALISTIC NOVEL

growth of the novel-reading public -->  changes in the reader-writer relationships:

---> As the writer had become  a PROFESSIONAL WRITER---> there is any form of patronage, writer becomes independent--->he begins to write to please his public(larger middle class public) that wanted to read about things close to their own individual experience

Writers began to look at reality for inspiration => Novel= a picture of life

ELEMENTS OF REALISTIC  NOVEL

 - clock time + physical setting are used. TIME + SPACE were made tangible through the use of 

   details( such as names of streets, particular days)

-  certain "COMMUNICATING QUALITIES"(colours,size,exetion) became of primary importance

-  attentions are  focused not only outdoor settings but also INTERIORS(such as bedrooms..)

-  NAMES + SURNAMES were given to the characters

-  greater importance was given to MONEY  as a status symbol

-  a CONFLICT was emphasized between :-->middle-class values (money,power..)

                                                                          --> chivalric values  (honour, glory..)

                                                                          --> traditional gentlemen values (manners, fashion..)

- a new type of PROTAGONIST developed: PRACTICAL,SELF-MADE,SELF-RELIANT. With  

  common sense and  prudence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DANIEL DEFOE

He is the first novelist who broke with tradition and started this new type of fiction.At the age of 60 he turned to prose fiction considering it as a kind of business activity which now paid better than others

BUT  he had to find a COMPROMISE  between puritan ideas and novels. To justify his works  he said that his stories   were true and that they give a MORAL LESSON to the readers

 |

V this conception of fiction led him to write novels with more or less the same features.

REALISM                     - novels were usually presented in the form of diary or autobiography,related in the first-person in order to       

                                       increase  verisimilitude

LACK OF                      -  not a real plot but a sequence of events unfolding in chronological order and around the same protagonist

STRUCTURE

LACK OF                       -  the characters not develop during the story, they are flat

CHARACTERIZATION

INDIVIDUALISM          -  only 1 main character (hero o heroine)that stuggle against misfortunes and count on self-reliance for   

                                          survival. Character are self-made and found is salvation in himself(puritan heritage)

ISOLATION                   -  usually isolated physically and  socially/morally (Crusoe,Moll flanders)

NO SENTIMENTALISM -  a very little despair even in the most tragic situation Common sense prevails feelings

MORAL ATTITUDE      -prayers and expressions of gratitude to God . Moral conclusion is not implicit in the character's actions

PICARESQUE                - prose autobiographies of a person about his own experience;

ELEMENTS                     episodic in structure;

                                         some characters are rogues and exploit the society they live in;

                                         direct or indirect critic to society.

THE BOURGEOIS NOVEL

 

SAMUEL RICHARDSON

He had a natural talent for letter-writing and realized that the theme of certain letter could be material for a complete novel.His novels are essentially moral lessons in the form of love stories full of passions, subjectivism  and self-revelation

He write for middle class people and show them how to reach success -> social improvement.There is a contrast between the honest bourgeoisie and the corrupt aristocracy.

FEATURES:

PLOT                             - novels no longer based on a sequence of fantastic episodes but on a single story made up of

                                         everyday events and emotional situations (a pretext to analyze the flow of feelings and passions)

SETTING                       - novels no longer set in far off countries or exotic places (# Defoe) but in a domestic

                                         environment, confined  to interiors

CHARACTERIZATION  -the male characters are middle class men with private lives, family problems and repressed

                                         desire(# defoe's are picaresque rogues or outcasts)

REALISM                       - in each novel in the treatment of characters and situations ambiguous mixture of reality and 

                                          illusion , realism in the minute recording of mental processes and feelings.

PSYCHOLOGICAL        - great attention in given to human behaviour(#defoe) R's characters are capable of emotional ANALYSIS                       development. They are round characters

SENTIMENTALISM       -his novels are all love stories with happy or tragic ending



MORALISING PURPOSE -(=Defoe) to promote goodness and virtue

TECNIQUE                     -epistolary form

AND STYLE

RICHARDSON'S EPISTOLARY TECNIQUE AND INFLUENCE:

-the author record the sequences of thoughts and feelings almost moment by moment

-it provided immediacy

-it create a sense of intimacy between characters and readers

-it had the same function as soliloque in drama

-it anticiped the STREAM-OF-CONSCIOUSNESS technique of modern fiction

-it became an expression of idividuately

-defects such as prolixity and repetitiveness

                                                                             

                               

THE COMIC EPIC NOVEL

HENRY FIELDING

Aristocratic man, he attack and satirized social and political corruption.

According to Fielding Richardson's Pamela was characterized by sham (falsa) morality-ipocrisy-ambiguity..so he wrote Shamela with satirical and critic purpose. It is written in epistolary form and it was simply the parody of someone else's work.

It was only with "Joseph Andrews" that he realized the possibilities of the new literary genre and decided to approach it methodically by first defining and codifing novel rules.He use a preface that contained all the other constituent parts of classical epic with the exeption of metre.(such as fable , action characters..)

THE COMIC EPIC NOVEL:

-fable+ action  were no longer grave and solemn but light and ridiculous

-characters    were persons of middle or inferior rank so of inferior manners

-sentiment + diction were imbued with the ludicrous (no with sublime)

-thecomic element was very important to ridicule affectation produced by vanity and hypocrisy

To describe  comic situations  within an epic structure, F. Looked for a model and found it in Cervantes' Don Quixote,from wich in  Joseph Andrews he borrowed  the structure of journey,humor heroism,epic tone...

FEATURES:

PLOT                               -presents a combination of episodes, structure and organized in an organic unity(no longer based on a

                                         simple sequence of events or on a single story)

SETTINGS                       -are outdoors  no longer interiors

CHARACTERIZATION   -belong to middle class and lower classes since the greatest diversities between them are the potential for

                                          the truly comic; characters are STATIC

NO                                    -F. Is much more interested in society than in single characters(#Richardson)F. Propose to show not men 

INDIVIDUALIZATION     but manners not an individual, but a species.

REALISM                         -novels offer a realistic and genuine picture of 18th century English life

MORALUIZING               -there in no idea of puritan punishment.Sexual instinct frankly presented and it isn't immoral but simply

PURPOSE                          controlled and directed to good. The moral message is connected with F's belief in men's natural

                                          inclination to goodness.He wants to make man realize that virtue is better than vices and that laughter can

                                          be the means to defeat immorality

NO EXAGERATED         -there aren't melodramatic episodes; love is a strong feeling

SENTIMENTALISM

SOCIAL                           -is made indirectly through the personal experiences of the characters who may  for example be robbed by DENUNCIATION             highwayman o unjustly sentenced to prison , in order to represent the danger of roads and the corruption 

                                         of justice

 IRONY                            - connected with the mock-heroic character of the novels, irony is always broad (sguaiata)

THE ANTI-NOVEL

 

LAURENCE STERNE

His real gift as a writer was for Comic-Satiric narrative .

Stern anomalous novel derives from the fusion of a new technique with older elements.

FEATURES:

OLDER ELEMENTS -  The picaresque form : -the patchwork (collage) of episodes and the apparently limitless length of the novel

                                                                         -the sense of chance (caso) that dominates the work

                                  -   The mock-heroic treatment of certain subjects

-   The cast of characters,both high and low

-           The conventional biographical form announced in the title of novel

NEW TECNIQUE     -   The association of ideas                           A new relationship between time and

                                  -   A new sense of time                                association of ideas is established by Sterne

Sterne anticipated by 2 centuries Bergson's theory of duration (la durée) , according to which each person lived moments and experiences which cannot be measured in fixed periods of time, since the mind has its own inner time, distinct from the conventional ones of external world. On the basis of this theory what is important is no longer the chronological sequence of events but what the character feels and thinks:no facts but emotional implications of facts. àThis is why S. Uses first person narration and basis his book on an overlapping(straboccare) of memories that the protagonist describes in an apparently illogical sequence of progression (flashforwards=anticipazioni) and regression (flash-back=analessi). àThis is also why great attention is paid to the so called "hobbyhorses"(manie) or rather obsessions,passions. Everyone in the book has his "hobbyhorse" since it is not determined by any external reality but rather by an inexplicable inner drive.

STERNE'S ORIGINALITY: break of the rules of the conventional biographical novel ;  the narration is interrupted by digressions;

                                             Parent's behaviour at the moment of conception may influence the foetus (Freudian theories);

The reader is involved by a long series of questions and answers, tragic events are imbued  with mock-absurdity, and baffled.

DEFOE

RICHARDSON

FIELDING

STERNE

PLOT




No real plot

Sequence of events

Single story

Unity of episodes

Having an organic unity

Patchwork/limitless

Sequence of events not

 following clock time,

 autobiography

SETTING

Outdoors

Mainly indoors

The protagonist's

travelling

Interior/mental time

CHARACTERS

Flat ch.,prototype of

The middle class

Round ch, middle class

people

Ch belonging to different

Social classes, STATIC

Portrayal of a trait/obsession

Of ch.

NARRATIVE

 THECNIQUE

1st personal narrator

Epistolary novel

3rd person narrator ,

obtrusive

1st person narrator,

association of ideas

LANGUAGE

Realistic,simple,concrete

moralistic

Realistic,witty,ironic

Abstract,ironic,disgressive

MORAL AIM

Celebration of Puritan

life

Promote virtue

Men's inclination to

goodness

No moralizing purpose but

Showing the burden of life

SENTIMENTALISM

absent

Typical feature

No exaggerated

absent

IRONY

absent

absent

Irony is witty(pungente)

And always present

Mock-heroic , treatment of

Certain subject







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