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ENGLAND - ECONOMY, NATURAL RESOURCES

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ENGLAND

is the largest and richest country in Great Britain. For the most part its territory is flat or undulating. There are upland regions in the north - the Pennine Chain, the Cumbrian Mts. and the Yorkshire moorlands - and in Devon and Cornwall.

The capital of England is London, but there



are other large industrial cities, such as Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester.

The most densely populated are 818d34i as are in

London and the south-east, the industrial cities in West Yorkshire (Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford) and the north west (Liverpool, Manchester), the conurbation around Birmingham in the West Midlands, the conurbations around the rivers Tyne and

Tees in the north east (Newcastle upon Tyne, Middlesborough) and along the south coast. Other very interesting and famous cities are York, Chester, Oxford and Cambridge.

Chester is a very important town in the north-west of England. It has about sixty thousand inhabitants.

In the past it used to be a Roman fort; its name comes from the Latin word castra, meaning "fortified camp".

Oxford is the home of the oldest university in England. Most of the oldest colleges are situated just a short walk from each other in the centre of town. The most famous college is Christ

Church. It has a great hall dating from the reign of Henry VIII and its chapel has become the Cathedral of Oxford.

Cambridge is the home of Britain's second oldest University. It is situated on the river Cam A beautiful way to visit it is from the river, hiring a punt and going under its beautiful bridges.

York was the capital of Northern England. It is one of the best preserved  medieval cities in Europe. It was built by the Romans, conquered by the Angle-Saxon and ruled by the Vikings.

If you are in York you cannot miss the Shambles, a medieval street where the buildings are very close together, and York Minster, the largest Gothic Cathedral north of the Alps.

Although England is a relatively highly industrialised and populous area, there are still many unspoilt areas of natural beauty. These include national parks, forest parks, conservation areas as well as many historic buildings and gardens, safari and wild-life parks and 'theme' parks organized according to a historic or legendary theme.

ECONOMY

England is highly industrialised and was, in fact, the first country to undergo an industrial revolution, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Its economy is traditionally based on coalmining, iron and steel manufacturing, heavy machinery and textile industries, shipbuilding and trading.



More recent industries include pharmaceuticals, artificial fibres, electrical equipment, car- manufacturing, and high technology industries.

In London and the south east, 75% of employees work in the service industries, particularly those linked to business or finance.

Agriculture still plays an important role in the economy, employing about l million people. Dairy products are more common in the west while sheep and cattle are reared in the hilly areas of the north and south west. In the south and east, arable farming, pigs, poultry and horticulture dominate.

NATURAL RESOURCES

England has many coal-fields, which have recently been privatised, as well as oil and gas reserves in the North Sea which saved Britain from economic disaster during the oil crisis of the 1970s.


EXERCISES

1. Put the correct names by the dots in the map below

2. Find out about the economy of your country and write some comparative sentences

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